Clinical relevance of cytogenetics to pediatric practice. Postnatal findings of Patau syndrome – Review of 5 cases

Vasilica PLAIASUa, MD; Diana OCHIANAa, biol.; Gabriela MOTEIa, biol.; Ioana ANCAb, MD, PhD; Adrian GEORGESCUb, MD, PhD
aGenetics Department, IOMC “Alfred Rusescu”, Bucharest, Romania bPediatrics Department, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, IOMC “Alfred Rusescu”, Bucharest, Romania
Resumo / Abstract
Introduction: Patau syndrome (trisomy 13) is one of the most common chromosomal anomalies clinically characterized by the presence of numerous malformations with a limited survival rate for most cases. Babies are usually identified at birth and the diagnosis is confirmed with genetic testing. Materials and methods: In this review we outline the clinical and cytogenetic aspects of trisomy 13 and associated phenotypes for 5 cases analyzed in the last 3 years, referred to our Clinical Genetics Department. For each child cytogenetic analysis was performed to determine the genetic variant; also, the patients were investigated for other associated malformations (cardiac, cerebral, renal, ocular anomalies). Discussion: All 5 cases presented multiple malformations, including some but not all signs of the classical clinical triad suggestive of Patau syndrome. The cytogenetic investigation confirmed for each case the suspected diagnosis and also indicated the specific genetic variant, this being a valuable information for the genetic counselling of the families. Conclusion: The application of genetic analysis can increase diagnosis and prognosis accuracy and have an impact on clinical management.
Keywords: trisomy 13, Patau syndrome, polydactyly, cleft palate, microphthalmia, genetics

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